PETS in real time: Privacy in the Smart Grid
28 July 2011
Privacy-friendly Aggregation for the Smart-grid
Klaus Kursawe (Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen) and George Danezis and Markulf Kohlweiss (Microsoft Research)
Privacy in for smart electricity provision seems to be a rising topic, and this year there is a whole session on it at PETS 2011. The first paper (one which I am a coauthor) looks at the problem of gathering aggregate data from groups of smart meters, without allowing any third party to get the the individual measurements. This can be applied as a PET to solve real-world problems such as fraud detection, leakage detection, load estimates, demand response, weather prediction — all of which only require aggregate data (sometimes in real time), not individual measurements.
The key challenge to providing a private aggregation protocols are the specific constraints of smart meters. They are cheap devices, with modest resources, hardly any bandwidth, no ability to communicate, etc. Two specific protocols are presented: the first one allows to compare the sum of meter readings with a reference number (maybe measured from a feeder meter). This protocol allows for fancy proofs of correctness, but it slow in terms of computation and bandwidth (it requires public key operations for each reading). The second protocol is extremely fast and has no communication overhead. In both cases a pragmatic approach to the threat model is followed: we assume that the utilities will be honestly defining groups of meters and facilitating the key management protocol — for the second protocol there is no overhead of public key operations after the initial key setup.
The key highlight from this work is not as much its technical depth (tricks with DC networks and hash function that would not surprise any PETS regular). What is interesting is that the protocols were designed for a real industrial application and now fully integrated on real smart meters and their communication protocols in collaboration with our collaborators at Elster.
Plug-in privacy for Smart Metering billing
Marek Jawurek, Martin Johns, and Florian Kerschbaum (SAP Research)
This second paper looks at the problem of billing for fine-grained time of use tariffs — their energy consumption at different times costs a different rate per unit. This is a very important topic, as correct billing and time of use tariffs are a key driver of fine-grained data collection through smart meters — if we can do billing privately then maybe less personal information may be collected.
Technically the protocols proposed are based on the homomorphic properties of Pedersen commitments: readings are commitments, and you can use multiplication by a constant and addition to compute the bill, and (most importantly) prove that it is correct. The system model is that the meter outputs signed commitments of readings, a privacy component computes the bill and proofs of correctness, and those are sent to the supplier for verification (and printing the bills!).
This is the core of a nice solution for the basic billing case (which is likely to be the common one in smart grids). We have shown in related work that the protocol can be further improved to have zero communication overhead. Since it avoids expensive zero-knowledge proofs it is fast for its proofs and verification. It also provides the basic infrastructure to support further more expressive billing policies and general computations.